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How to choose a satellite dish

A guide on how to choose a satellite dish, and which antenna is best.
A satellite dish is the easiest way to provide broadband Internet access and other services anywhere in the world, both stationary and in dynamics – for example, when traveling by car.

satellite dish TV So that you can watch your favorite TV channels in the cabin of your yacht, several dozens of high-tech communication and broadcasting satellites revolve around the planet in various orbits. All of them work in different ranges, with different polarization and with different bandwidth.
To figure out what is really necessary from the equipment for reliable signal reception, and also to understand how to choose a satellite dish, which is better: active, passive, external, circular, omnidirectional, or it is better to make a satellite dish yourself – it is often difficult for the user. Since the passive and active satellite systems are designed for fundamentally different purposes, and it has not yet been possible to create a full-fledged omnidirectional satellite antenna due to the large distances between the antenna and the satellite, without a specialist it is often impossible to make a choice and verify the technical compatibility of all components.

Satellite terminals

Which satellite dishes are the best? Hard to tell. The most modern today are external satellite dishes made in a remote form factor for installation on the street, including in areas with difficult climatic conditions.

How is a satellite dish
The transceiver part of a satellite communication system consists of three main components: a mirror, a receiver and a transmitter. A signal transmitter to a satellite, or BUC, is required for broadcast antennas, since such satellite systems operate simultaneously in two directions: satellite-antenna and satellite-antenna.

Two-way satellite communication is primarily intended for VSAT antennas, small satellite earth stations, which in essence look like a satellite antenna with a receiver and transmitter installed in one housing. The VSAT station provides full Internet access at maximum speeds provided by the satellite operator. The radiation power of the output channel depends on the BUC amplifier, and the more it is, the more reliable the connection.

The LNB satellite converter receiving a signal from orbit is a direct element of a satellite dish of any specialization. This amplifier is installed in television systems and in satellite earth communication stations, and also determines the physical parameters of broadcasting:

frequency range (today the most common C, Ku and Ka range)
type of polarization of the satellite dish – vertical or horizontal, right or left circular; Orthomode, a device for receiving and further processing the signal, is responsible for polarization.
In most cases, simple television satellite systems combine a receiving amplifier and an ortho mode. Therefore, when choosing an antenna, you need to know the transmitter power, the frequency of the transmitting satellite and the broadcast polarization in order to correctly select the receiving and transmitting amplifier, as well as the orthomode, if necessary.

A mirror is a direct receiver of a satellite signal, so it should be selected taking into account the following factors:

localization of the place of signal reception;
which operator do you plan to connect to;
the number of satellites to be contacted;
media type – mobile or stationary object;
place of installation directly of the antenna system.
VSAT satellite dish
The place from which the satellite will be operated affects the choice of both the operator and a particular beam. In this case, specialized maps by region and recommended angles of the satellite dish will help you. Information on communication satellites, providing broadband Internet access, is rather extensively presented on the Internet. According to the alleged satellites with which the antenna system will operate, it is worth determining based on the section of the tasks set.

At the same time, the choice of an object, a specific place on the object for installation of a satellite antenna system also depends both on the tasks and on the overall dimensions of the antenna, the location of the stiffeners and the possibility of direct direction to the selected satellite.

According to the form factor, there are several options, the most common satellite dishes are:

direct focus, it’s round,
offset, it’s also elliptical,
multifocal.
The direct focus antenna has its advantages due to the location of the irradiator, which is located exactly in the center of the received beam, due to which the reflection and focusing of the entire signal is directly reflected into it. This reduces direct losses and increases channel stability. The disadvantages of this structure are the exactingness to the direction of the antenna: strictly to the satellite, as well as the location of the emitter, covering part of the useful area of ​​the mirror. However, the solution is optimal for signal transmission, since the emitter is directed directly to the satellite.

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